Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This entity survived until 1795, when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I, but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 – an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.

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Brief History
Over the past 1000 years or so Lithuania has been part of the vast Kingdom of Poland-Lithuania, part of Prussia (bits of it at any rate), part of the Russian Tsarist Empire , and between the wars was briefly independent. It was subsequently snapped up again by the Soviet Union, briefly taken by the Nazis (which is why the Nazis were seen in Lithuania as ” liberators” , and why there were so many Lithuanians fighting for the Nazis). After the war the borders of Russia, Lithuania, Poland and Germany were all shifted to the West, meaning that many parts of present day Lithuania were previously parts of Poland (including the capitol, Vilnius), and many parts of preWar Lithuania are now in Belarus and Russia. Lithuania was once again absorbed into the Soviet Union, only regaining its independence when the Berlin Wall came down and the Soviet Union disintegrated.

Getting There and In
There are many European carriers that offer transfer connections (including SAS Scandinavian, Czech Airlines, and LOT).

As of 1st May 2004 Lithuania is a member of the European Union (EU) which means that there are no restrictions on passport holders of other EU countries staying, living, and working in the Lithuania. At the airport or border they’ll just examine your passport and wave you through without stamping it, and probably without speaking to you.

Passport holders of other countries will still get their passports stamped, and may be asked to provide evidence of a return ticket or that they have sufficient funds for their stay. This is unlikely though. It’s always a good idea to contact the Lithuania in your home country to check that you don’t need to obtain a visa prior to your arrival.

Food and Drink
Lithuanian food is heavily influenced by neighbouring Russia and Poland, so cabbages, potato and beetroot are abundant, usually served up with pork. Try the cold, creamy beetroot soup, very refreshing and usually served with boiled potatoes or eggs. If Lithuania has a national dish it is “Zeppelins”, large, air-balloon shaped (hence the name) parcels of potato dough, stuffed with either meat or cheese, and covered with either bacon and/or a sauce. They’re certainly unique in world cuisine, but are fairly tasty if extremely filling. There are a few restaurants that serve exclusively Lithuanian food, but most places will have a few Lithuanian dishes as well as more standard food; steak, pasta, pizza, etc. Pizza seems to be very popular in Lithuania and there are many dedicated pizza restaurants (try Bambolo in Klaipeda for combinations of toppings you couldn’t even begin to imagine). If you’re after more “exotic” stuff most of the big cities will have the standard ranges of world cuisines, Indian, Chinese and the like, as well as some more unusual ones like Polish or Armenian. Lithuanian restaurants are good value for money; if you avoid the tourist traps you should never have to pay more than £5 for a good meal.

McDonalds have now spread their insidious influence to Lithuania. They aren’t widespread yet, but you should be warned that they are there!

Lithuanian beer is pretty good stuff; Czech-style lagers are most common, but some breweries do dark beers as well. The lager is stronger than those you’ll find in the UK, but happily you seem to be able to drink as much as you like and not suffer from a hangover (probably because the beer is fairly pure, and not pumped full of chemicals). All bars served beer on draught. Depending on where you drink half a litre will cost between 40 and 80p. Imported beers are available in touristy bars, but are more expensive than the local stuff, and is usually not on draught so you may as well stick to the local brew.

Spirits are popular in Lithuania, vodka especially so, and there are some reasonable vodkas distilled in Lithuania. Another drink that you may encounter is Lithuanian mead, made from honey and which only recently begun to made again, based on traditional recipes. It comes in a wide variety of colours and flavours, and as it comes in small bottles with pretty pictures of Lithuania on them it makes a popular present to bring back. Having had a couple of the stuff I can confirm that it is drinkable, although its sweet flavour means that I doubt you could drink too much of the stuff before throwing up. It warms you up nicely in cold weather though, and does a respectable job of clearing blocked sinuses.

Cheap but reasonable wine is available, most of the good stuff being imported from the former Soviet Republic of Moldova. Decent “champagne” (well, sparkling wine anyway) will set you back £3 to £4 for a bottle.

Various Useful Facts
The main language is, not surprisingly, Lithuanian, which is fiendishly difficult to learn and pronounce (although at least it’s mostly written in the Latin rather than the Cyrillic alphabet). Most older Lithuanians also speak Russian but remember that this is because they had to learn it when Lithuania was still part of the Soviet Union, so although many Lithuanians know how to speak Russian many have no desire to use it. Always ask whether it’s OK before trying to speak to someone in Russian. Other common second languages spoken in Lithuania are German and English. Most big hotels will have someone who speaks English, as will most bars and restaurants in the big cities. Away from these places you might have some problems, but nothing that you shouldn’t be able to overcome with the help of a guidebook and resorting to hand signals.

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